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Peer Review of Renewable Energy-based Adaptive Protection(s) & Relay Coordination Optimization Techniques


Aayush Shrivastava*, Devender Kumar Saini and Manjaree Pandit   Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )


Background: Distributed Sustainable Energy Generation (DSEG) has become the leading trend in modern R&D to achieve practical, financial and environmental benefits. From the viewpoint of power system, the benefits are reduction in power failures, enhancement of energy quality & reliability, congestion relief and smart/micro grid demand response. The widespread use of modern technologies, on the one hand provides the use of DSEG for safe power production and power loss reduction. On the other hand, it also offer new challenges such as optimal placement of relays, protection device settings, and voltage control problems in power systems. Among the various solutions reported in literature, widely accepted solution seems to be the deployment of Fault Current Limiter (FCL) to minimize DSEG impacts. However, FCLs are expensive option to restore relay coordination. Adaptive protection scheme provides benefit to the smart grid's advanced features and serves as an efficient solution to address new DSEG and FCL challenges.

Objective: This paper offers an extensive review of, the effect of DSEG on distribution systems from safety point of view, optimization techniques used for adaptive protections, optimal relay coordination and merits & demerits of FCL.

Methods: Paper discuss many recent optimization and hybrid optimization techniques used for solving optimal relay coordination model (ORC). Adaptive and FCL based non adaptive techniques are also discussed to solve this model. An attempt has also been made to present comparative study of various optimization techniques in tabular form, considering different bus models and their outcomes.

Conclusion: Various optimization techniques have used by researchers to solve the vital issue of DSEG impacts on distribution grid. Comparative study of these techniques shows that, Water cycle optimization, hybrid whale-GWO and GSASQP algorithms results are found to give better results in solving the ORC problem. FCL based non-adaptive technique found better as compare with adaptive techniques because a greater number of DGs can be integrated on grid with less complexity.


Distributed generation, solar power, power system optimization, adaptive relay coordination, Fault Current Limiter (FCL).


Electrical & Electronics Department, University Of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Electrical & Electronics Department, University Of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Electrical Department, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior

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