Puneet K. Srivastava*, Amar N. Tiwaria and Sri N. Singh Pages 446 - 469 ( 24 )
Background: This paper reviews the requirements imposed by Transmission System Operators (TSOs) in their grid codes to address intolerable implications of integrating large Wind Power Plants (WPPs) to the grid. Besides the common objectives, terminologies used by different TSOs were distinct. Therefore, developing a harmonized grid code is imperative.Introduction: On the recommendation of the European Commission, European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) has made concerted efforts in the direction of developing a harmonized grid code, and published its document in March 2013. Method: Several TSOs have updated their grid codes in accordance with the increasing wind energy penetration. We have made an effort to present a comparison between different integration requirements specified by different grid codes. The outcomes presented will certainly be beneficial to the countries, which are in the process of enacting their own grid code. Results: We have reviewed different grid codes in terms of Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) requirement, operating voltage and frequency range, active power control (frequency regulation) and reactive power support (voltage regulation). Conclusion: The present study envisages helping wind turbine manufacturers and WPP developers, as it would provide them a clear insight into the regulations imposed on WPPs as included/ updated in different grid codes.
Wind Power Plants (WPPs), grid stability, Fault Ride-Through (FRT) capability, islanded power networks, Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT), High Voltage Ride-Trough (HVRT).
Department of Electrical Engineering, Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, Department of Electrical Engineering, Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, Vice-Chancellor, Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur